1.1. Grape seeds
Grape is one of the fruits with the largest cultivation area both in our country and in the world. Grapes, most of which are mostly devoted to fruit juice and wine production, are consumed as table in Turkey, and are also involved in the production of products such as vinegar and molasses. At the same time, grape seed flour has been in demand recently due to its antioxidant value.
Grape seeds and skins, which constitute 38-52% of the grape pulp on a dry weight basis, are very rich in phytochemicals. Depending on the grape variety, grape seeds with a fibrous structure consisting of rich fatty acids, tocols, phenolic compounds and sterols have gained the status of a very valuable raw material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries by getting rid of the process by-product-waste label.
The fact that anthocyanins and phenolic compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (reducing inflammation and edema), anti-aging, and cardiovascular diseases preventive properties have made it an economically important approach to evaluate and recycle grape seeds and extracts as oil and flour (powder) in recent years. one].
1.2. Grape Seed Flour
Grape seed flour contains 11.53% protein, 4.31% fat and 47.56% total dietary fiber content , with approximately 42 times more fiber, 9 times more calcium, 8 times more magnesium and 2 times more fiber compared to wheat flour. It attracts attention with its high potassium composition.
In line with this interest, there are 2 important facts that need to be studied for the development and improvement of increasing grape seed flours. These:
- Ekmek başta olmak üzere fırıncılık ürünlerinin viskoelastik yapısından sorumlu glutenin üzüm çekirdeği ununda bulunmayışı ve yüksek lif içeriği, bu un kullanılarak yapılan nihai ürünün hacminde ve çekirdeğin esnekliğinde bir azalmaya yol açmaktadır.
- Tercih edilen üzüm çekirdeği konsantrasyona bağlı olarak çiğneme ve yutma sonrası acı tat ve aromanın kalıcı hissedilmesidir .
1.3. Usage Areas
- In a study that aimed to produce gluten-free donuts using grape, flax and melon seed flour instead of potato flour, it was determined that the specific volume of the gluten-free donut dessert increased by 27.38% with the melon seed flour substitution, and all substituted raw materials caused a decrease in the elasticity values of the gluten-free bite dessert. Flaxseed substituted gluten-free donut dessert was determined as the variety with the highest caloric value (587.84 kcal). The richest variety in terms of dietary fiber content was the flax flour-added lokma dessert containing 8.63% of total dietary fiber. It has been determined that the most popular variety among the desserts offered to the consumer is the grape seed powder added lokma dessert. It has been observed that the raw materials used enrich the lokma dessert in terms of protein and dietary fiber content, as well as gluten-free properties (Kuzumoğlu and Çelik, 2020).
- In a study on the use of grape seed flour obtained from the waste grape pomace during winemaking in bread production due to its potential health benefits, dough and breads were prepared by choosing different proportions of hard red spring wheat flour and grape seed flour. The brightness, volume, textural and sensory properties of the breads developed depending on the flour used were examined and it was thought that 5 g of grape seed flour (5%) for 100 g of dough was the most ideal wheat flour substitute. It has been understood that the use of grape seed flour above the specified rate improves bitter/arid taste profile and results in increased bread hardness and porosity. As a result, a gluten-free bread design with a strong phenolic component activity, which allows individuals with gluten intolerance to benefit from micronutrients, has been revealed (Hoye and Ross, 2011).
- Grape flour was used at concentrations of 1, 3, 5 and 10 % with the aim of enriching the waffle products nutritionally without changing their sensory properties. The results of the research showed that with the increase in the amount of grape seed powder used (10%), the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased and the waffle dough became harder. On the other hand, there was no significant change in moisture and dry matter in any of the waffle samples. The sensory evaluation highlighted differences in colour, consistency and sweetness between samples, but these differences had no effect on the overall impression or the price the panelist could pay for the samples evaluated. The 10% addition of grape seed flour to waffles was found acceptable to consumers. This indicates a great potential for waffles to be reshaped both as gluten-free existence and as functional food (Antonic et al., 2021).
- It was aimed to reveal the effects of grape pulp flour, seedless grape pulp flour and grape seed flour on cookie quality. The study findings lagged behind grape pomace flour and grape seed flour in terms of both phenolic component and dietary fiber of seedless grape pomace flour. The phenolic component and antioxidant activity of cookies containing 10% grape seed flour were found to be higher than the other samples. Grape pulp did not significantly affect the width, thickness and spread rate of the cookies. Cookies containing 5% grape seed flour were mostly liked in terms of sensory properties and purchasing purpose, and it was determined that general acceptability and affordability decreased significantly when the use of grape pulp flour exceeded 10% (Acun and Gül, 2014).
Grape Seed Powder(Flour) Nutrient Element
|Energy||1193 kJ/285 kcal|
|Sugary carbohydrates||21.8 g|
|Food fiber||62.8 g|
The table was obtained from this source and represents 100 grams of product.
 Sevindik, O., Selli, S. (2016). Basic Bioactive Components of Grape Seeds. Çukurova Tarım Gıda Bil. Der., 31(2): 9-16.
 Kalyas, A., Urkek, B. (2020). The Effect of Black Grape Seed Powder on Some Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Yogurt. Academic Journal of Agriculture, 9(2): 353-362.
 Çelik, İ., Kuzumoğlu, Y. (2020). Production and Quality Characteristics of Gluten-Free Lokma Dessert Using Different Grain Flours and Kernel Powders. Academic Food 18(2): 156-163.
 Oprea, O.B., Popa, M.E., Apostol, L., Gaceu, L. (2022). Research on the Potential Use of Grape Seed Flour in the Bakery Industry. Foods, 11, 1589.